Attend Spring Meetings on Development topics from Apr 17-21. Comment and engage with experts. Calendar of Events


Syndicate content

Education

Untuk menggali potensi siswa, tuntut dan dukunglah guru

Michael Crawford's picture
Also available in: English

Di antara 29 negara dan ekonomi kawasan Asia Timur dan Pasifik, kita bisa menemukan beberapa sistem pendidikan paling sukses di dunia. Tujuh dari sepuluh pencetak rata-rata nilai tertinggi pada tes yang dapat dibandingkan secara internasional seperti PISA dan TIMSS berasal dari kawasan tersebut, di mana Jepang, Korea Selatan, Singapura, dan Hong Kong, Tiongkok secara konsisten selalu berada di antara yang terbaik.
 
Namun, yang lebih penting, kita juga menemukan bahwa kinerja yang hebat tidak terbatas pada sistem sekolah di negara-negara berpenghasilan tinggi kawasan ini. Sistem sekolah di negara berpenghasilan menengah seperti Vietnam dan Tiongkok (khususnya provinsi di Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, dan Guangdong), meskipun memiliki PDB per kapita yang jauh lebih rendah, memiliki nilai lebih baik daripada rata-rata negara OECD. Terlebih lagi, nilai dari Tiongkok dan Vietnam menunjukkan bahwa kinerja siswa miskin tidak tertinggal. Siswa dari kuintil berpenghasilan terendah kedua memiliki skor lebih baik daripada rata-rata siswa OECD, bahkan peserta tes paling miskin pun mengungguli siswa dari beberapa negara makmur. Namun demikian, seperti ditunjukkan grafik di bawah, negara-negara lain di kawasan ini belum mencapai hasil yang sama.

To unlock student potential in East Asia Pacific, be demanding and supportive of teachers

Michael Crawford's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia

Among the 29 countries and economies of the East Asia and Pacific region, one finds some of the world’s most successful education systems. Seven out of the top 10 highest average scorers on internationally comparable tests such as PISA and TIMSS are from the region, with Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong (China) consistently among the best. 

But, more significantly, one also finds that great performance is not limited to school systems in the region’s high-income countries. School systems in middle-income Vietnam and China (specifically the provinces of Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Guangdong) score better than the average OECD country, despite having much lower GDP per capita. What is more, scores from both China and Vietnam show that poor students are not being left behind. Students from the second-lowest income quintile score better than the average OECD student, and even the very poorest test takers outscore students from some wealthy countries. As the graph below shows, however, other countries in the region have yet to achieve similar results.

It takes a village to tackle Indonesia’s early childhood development challenges

Thomas Brown's picture



“Indonesia’s future is at stake”, states Camilla Holmemo in her opening address at the Early Childhood Development Policy Conference, held in July 2017 in Jakarta. The program leader for human development, poverty and social development of the World Bank in Indonesia rallies the audience by highlighting the lack of access to early childhood education and development (ECED) services and the high incidence of child stunting in Indonesia.
 
Despite the country’s middle-income status, one in three children under five are stunted, the fifth highest rate in the world. For these children, the likelihood of becoming productive citizens is significantly hampered  – unless we do something about it now. 

교육을 통한 동아시아의 4차산업혁명 대응방안

Raja Bentaouet Kattan's picture
English
동아시아는 빠른 기술 진보에 대비하고 있다. (사진 : Gerhard Jörén / 세계은행)

'4 차산업혁명 (4IR)'으로 불리는 자동화와 급속한 기술 발전은 경제 환경과 노동력에 요구되는 기술의 특성을 변화시키고 있다. 이와 관련한 새로운 도전이 전세계에 대두되고 있고 동아시아 또한 이에 대한 준비를 하고 있다.

 세계적 도전

자동화가 확대됨에 따라 기술력이 부족한 저소득 국가는 자동화에 더 많이 노출된다. 특히 기술수준이 높은 지역에 산업이 집중되는 직업 클러스터링 (job clustering)으로 인해 문제 해결 능력 및 사회적 기술 등을 습득하는 능력은 근로자가 신흥 산업에 적응하는데 더욱 중요해지고 있다. 전세계 노동력은 이러한 변화에 적응하고 생산성을 유지하는데 필요한 기술개발을 하기 위해 끊임없는 협력과 혁신이 요구된다. “기술과 고용 관련 옥스포드 마틴 프로그램 (Oxford Martin Programme on Technology and Employment)”의 Carl Benedikt Frey교수는  "새로운 산업의 출현과 함께 새로 창출된 일자리는 평균 일자리보다 훨씬 더 숙련된 기술을 요구한다."라고 시사하였다.

4차산업혁명이 교육에 시사하는 점

Harry A. Patrinos's picture
English | Français | Español
근로자의 신기술 응용 능력은 교육을 통해 개발될 수 있다. (사진 : Sarah Farhat / 세계은행)​

4차산업혁명은 교육과 기술간의 관계를 더욱 긴밀하게 할 것이고 교육의 역할을 다시 한번 강조할 것이다. 대다수 개발도상국의 경우 부진한 성과를 내는 교육 체제 때문에 자동화에 대응할 수 있는 노동 경쟁력이 발전을 멈춘 상태다. 그런 탓에 개도국은 교육 투자 수익률이 높음에도 그에 따른 경제적 혜택을 누리지 못하고 있다. 4차산업혁명은 고소득 산업국가에서 널리 화두가 되고 있는 주제다. 그러나 자동화는 다른 나라보다 개도국에 특히 더 큰 영향을 끼칠 수 있고 개도국의 정책입안자들은 자국의 체제에 미칠 영향을 지금부터 우려해야 한다. 개도국은 교육투자 수익률이 높지만 교육의 질이 낮다. 
 
동아시아 성장 모델의 한계
 
동아시아 성장 신화의 두 가지 필수 요소는 무역 개혁과 인적 자본이다.  동아시아는 수출 장려 정책이나 무역 자유화 정책에 힘입어 저임금 저숙련 노동력을 비교우위로 활용할 수 있었다.  일례로 1962년 한국의 1인당 국민소득(GDP)은 아프리카 사하라 사막 이남 국가에 상응하는 수준이었다. 그러나 10년 간의 노동집약적, 수출 주도형 성장에 힘입어 한국의 1인당 실질 GDP는 두 배로 뛰었다.

Philippines: Keeping in step with what employers want

Pablo Acosta's picture
Step up to the Jobs Challenge

It is said that some employees are hired because of their technical skills, but fired due to their behaviors or attitudes, such as arriving late or showing a lack of commitment to achieve the firms’ goals. This complaint seems to be frequently mentioned during our many discussions with Filipino employers.
 
But what does the hard evidence show, beyond anecdotal remarks? Do Filipino employers have difficulty finding workers with the right “soft skills” (socio-emotional skills, right attitudes and behaviors)? And if so, do we have evidence that it leads to better pay? And how are employers, employees and government responding to these labor market signals?
 

Indonesia’s Social Assistance System: Praising Reforms But More Work Ahead

Pablo Acosta's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



When the Bank did its first social assistance public expenditure review in Indonesia in 2012, the diagnosis was clear. Despite spending significant amount of resources in “welfare”, most of them were through expensive subsidies (fuel, electricity, rice) that were not necessarily benefiting the most vulnerable segments of the society. General subsidies represented 20 percent of total national budget, but household targeted social assistance programs were already making their way, increasing from 0.3 to 0.5 percent of GDP between 2004 and 2010. Still, there was an overall dissatisfaction on what had been achieved, with the Gini coefficient rose by about 6 percentage points in the period of 2005 to 2012.

With more than 27 million people still considered poor and as one of the countries in the East Asia and the Pacific region that has one of the highest income inequality levels, the coverage expansion and social assistance system strengthening is a must. Fortunately, the situation in the social assistance sector has changed dramatically.

Sistem Bantuan Sosial Indonesia: Reformasi Berjalan Baik, Namun Masih Banyak Pekerjaan Lain

Pablo Acosta's picture
Also available in: English



Ketika Bank Dunia melakukan kajian pertama terkait pengeluaran bantuan sosial di Indonesia di tahun 2012, diagnosisnya sudah jelas. Meskipun telah banyak sumber daya yang dihabiskan untuk  "kesejahteraan", sebagian besar dari upaya ini dilakukan melalui subsidi yang mahal (bahan bakar, listrik, beras) yang belum tentu bermanfaat untuk segmen masyarakat yang paling rentan. Subsidi umum mewakili 20 persen dari total anggaran nasional, namun program bantuan sosial yang ditargetkan untuk rumah tangga telah berjalan, meningkat dari 0,3 persen PDB menjadi 0,5 persen antara tahun 2004 dan 2010. Namun, dengan koefisien Gini yang meningkat sekitar 6 poin persentase pada periode 2005-2012, masih ada ketidakpuasan dalam pencapaian selama ini.  

Dengan adanya lebih dari 27 juta orang yang termasuk golongan miskin dan sebagai salah satu negara di kawasan Asia Timur dan Pasifik yang memiliki tingkat ketimpangan pendapatan tertinggi, maka perluasan cakupan dan penguatan sistem bantuan sosial adalah suatu keharusan. Untungnya, situasi di sektor bantuan sosial telah berubah secara dramatis.

Education user committee improves teacher service performance in a remote Indonesian village

Dewi Susanti's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia
Chair and members of the Education User Committee announce the teachers’ performance scores in a meeting attended by the representatives from the Ministry of Education and Culture, the sub-district education department, the village government staff, the school staff, and community members.

Kelompok Pengguna Layanan tingkatkan kinerja layanan guru di desa terpencil di NTT

Dewi Susanti's picture
Also available in: English
Ketua dan anggota Kelompok Pengguna Layanan mengumumkan nilai kinerja guru dalam pertemuan yang dihadiri perwakilan dari Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, dinas pendidikan tingkat kabupaten, perangkat desa dan pihak sekolah, serta anggota masyarakat.

Pages