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financial inclusion

Financial inclusion for displaced people yields societal and economic benefits for all

Ceyla Pazarbasioglu's picture



Sixty-five million people worldwide are displaced by conflict and war.

Developing countries host 95% of them

Displaced people need help. But so do their host communities, which face enormous sudden pressures on their infrastructure, public services and markets. These pressures have the potential to undermine political stability.

This is why international development institutions are rethinking how to approach humanitarian crises, and no longer consider humanitarian assistance and development interventions as two separate, sequential responses. We, at the World Bank, have been ramping up our support to both people and communities affected by fragility, conflict and violence as well as disaster risk, which can exacerbate instability.

Being able to provide quality financial services before, during and after periods of humanitarian crises can improve people’s resilience and help sustain livelihoods. 

Các ưu tiên thúc đẩy tài chính toàn diện tại Việt Nam: Mở rộng dịch vụ tài chính và hướng tới một nền kinh tế không dùng tiền mặt

Ceyla Pazarbasioglu's picture
Also available in: English
 



Trời đã về đêm nhưng đường phố tại các thành phố và thị xã tại Việt Nam vẫn nhộn nhịp. Nền kinh tế tăng trưởng mạnh mẽ trong nhiều năm đã làm xuất hiện một tầng lớp trung lưu mới với khả năng chi tiêu nhiều hơn cho các hàng quán mở cửa tới thâu đêm, các cửa hàng bán lẻ lúc nào cũng đông khách và tỉ lệ sở hữu điện thoại di động ở mức cao—trung bình mỗi người có trên một máy điện thoại di động. Tuy nhiên, nền kinh tế vẫn dựa trên giao dịch bằng tiền mặt, phần đông người trong độ tuổi trưởng thành vẫn không sử dụng dịch vụ tài chính chính thức, ví dụ sử dụng tài khoản giao dịch. Chuyển sang hệ thống không dùng tiền mặt chính là một ưu tiên trong quá trình nâng cao hiệu quả, thúc đẩy phát triển kinh doanh và kinh tế, giảm nghèo tại những vùng nông thôn hẻo lánh nơi các nhà cung cấp dịch vụ tài chính truyền thống khó vươn tới.

Kể từ năm 2016 Ngân hàng Nhà nước Việt Nam đã hợp tác cùng Nhóm Ngân hàng Thế giới hướng tới  xây dựng một chiến lược quốc gia về  tài chính toàn diện trên cơ sở một cách tiếp cận tổng thể. Mặc dù chiến lược này hiện vẫn đang còn trong quá trình xây dựng nhưng một số điểm chính đã được xác định rõ: chú trọng tài chính trên nền tảng công nghệ số bao gồm chuyển các chương trình thanh toán của chính phủ sang sử dụng các dịch vụ và nền tảng công nghệ số ; cung cấp dịch vụ tài chính tới các vùng nông thôn và dân tộc thiểu số còn lạc hậu và tỉ lệ nghèo còn cao hơn tỷ lệ nghèo bình quân cả nước;  và tăng cường bảo vệ người tiêu dùng và phổ biến kiến thức tài chính giúp thế hệ người tiêu dùng mới được trang bị tốt hơn với dịch vụ tài chính hiện đại.

Leveraging ‘suptech’ for financial inclusion in Rwanda



With financial inclusion now established as an objective for most financial sector policymakers worldwide,  the day-to-day responsibility for ensuring its achievement in a responsible, consumer-friendly, and evidence-based manner often falls to financial sector supervisors.  Two challenges are particularly relevant: first, with an increased policy focus on financial inclusion, supervisors are often tasked with adapting reporting systems to collect granular data to monitor financial inclusion and inform policy. For example, how many customers are using each product? Are newly opened accounts active or dormant? What is the rate of growth of agent networks in rural areas?

Second, there is a global trend towards diversifying the range of financial service provider (FSP) types in a given market in order to improve competition and consumer choice, and ultimately financial inclusion. This means that non-bank FSPs such as mobile network operators (MNOs), fintech companies, financial cooperatives and microfinance institutions are increasingly brought under the supervisory mandate of supervisory authorities. This presents a significant challenge for financial sector supervisors who must cover a large and diverse set of FSPs with distinct risk profiles and capacities, stretching their already limited resources. Collecting and analyzing accurate, relevant, and timely information from these providers is at the heart of this supervisory challenge.

Many financial sector supervisors are seeking technology-enabled solutions to address these challenges, an approach known to some as “suptech” (i.e. supervision technology). The National Bank of Rwanda (BNR) provides a case in point.

Vietnam’s financial inclusion priorities: Expanding financial services and moving to a ‘non-cash’ economy

Ceyla Pazarbasioglu's picture



 Also available in: Tiếng Việt

It’s nighttime and the streets are bustling in Vietnam’s cities and towns. Buoyed by years of strong growth, the country has a burgeoning middle class with purchasing power to sustain restaurants and cafes, full and open late into the night, busy retailers and a high penetration of mobile phones – more than one per person. The economy, however, continues to run on cash and a majority of adults still don’t have formal financial services such as a basic transaction account. Moving to a “non-cash” system is a priority for the government to increase efficiency, promote business and economic development and reduce poverty including in remote rural areas where traditional financial providers have difficulty reaching.

Since 2016 the State Bank of Vietnam, the country’s central bank, has been partnering with the World Bank Group on a comprehensive approach to financial inclusion which will result in a national financial inclusion strategy. While still in development, several key elements of the strategy are clear: a focus on digital finance including shifts in government payments to digital products and platforms; providing financial services to rural and agricultural communities and ethnic minorities, where growth has lagged and poverty rates are above the national average; and strengthening consumer protection and financial education so that the next generation of consumers are prepared for a modern financial marketplace.

What do we know about the link between financial inclusion and inclusive growth?

Asli Demirgüç-Kunt's picture

Adults around the world and in all income groups use a variety of financial services, ranging from digital payments and savings accounts to loans and insurance. Many low-income adults, however, rely largely on informal financial services — 2 billion adults worldwide, or 38 percent, reported not having an account at a formal institution in 2014, according to Global Findex data. The World Bank has launched the ambitious goal of Universal Financial Access by 2020. This goal is not an end in itself. Rather, financial inclusion is a means to an end.

Which bring us to the question: What do we know about the link between financial inclusion and inclusive growth benefiting all income groups?

Electricity and the internet: two markets, one big opportunity

Anna Lerner's picture
The markets for rural energy access and internet connectivity are ripe for disruption – and increasingly, we’re seeing benefit from combining the offerings.
 
Traditionally, power and broadband industries have been dominated by large incumbent operators, often involving a state-owned enterprise. Today, new business models are emerging, breaking market barriers to jointly provide energy access and broadband connectivity to consumers.
 
As highlighted in the World Development Report 2016, access to internet has the potential to boost growth, expand economic opportunities, and improve service delivery. The digital economy is growing at 10% a year—significantly faster than the global economy as a whole. Growth in the digital economy is even higher in developing markets: 15 to 25% per year (Boston Consulting Group).
 
To make sure everyone benefits, coverage needs to be extended to the roughly four billion people that still lack access to the internet. In a testing phase, Facebook has experimented with flying drones and Google has released balloons to provide internet to remote populations.
 
But as cool as they might sound, these innovations do nothing for the one billion people who still live off the grid… and don’t have access to the electricity you need to use the internet in the first place! The findings of the Internet Inclusion Summit panel which the World Bank joined recently put this nicely: “without electricity, internet is only a black hole”.
 
That’s why efforts to expand electricity and broadband access should go hand in hand: close coordination between the energy and ICT sectors is probably one of the most efficient and sensible ways of making sure rural populations in low-income countries can reap the benefits of digital development. This thinking is also reflected in a new generation of disruptive telecom infrastructure projects.

Progress toward Universal Financial Access

Stephen Kehoe's picture


Photo Credit: Women’s World Banking 

Two years ago, Visa announced a commitment, alongside other organizations, to provide financial access to 500 million unbanked adults as part of the World Bank Group’s goal of achieving Universal Financial Access (UFA) by 2020.  It’s widely reported that 2 billion people worldwide (38% of all adults) don’t have access to formal financial services—no bank or savings account, no formal way to store or send money, no basic financial tools to manage life or business or help to generate income.

There was no doubt in our minds that Visa had a role to play, given the reach of our payments network and the fact that facilitating the issuance of digital payment accounts is our core business.  What was not as clear was how much our efforts would need to factor in changes to strategy in order to ensure the kind of accounts people are receiving hit their mark in terms of usage and provided a genuine pathway to full financial inclusion. 

Can 'fintech' innovations impact financial inclusion in developing countries?

Margaret Miller's picture
A digital transaction in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Such transactions are made possible in part by FINCA. FINCA's strategy in Africa is to focus operations on underserved markets and groups, namely rural areas and women. Photo: Anna Koblanck/IFC


Financial technology, “fintech,” has been reshaping the financial services industry with the level and speed of innovation that’s simply fascinating.

A month ago, my colleagues and I attended the 5th Annual Lendit USA conference to check out about the latest innovations and thinking in this field and see how we can apply it to our work.

There is growing interest in trying to figure out this new industry and take advantage of the opportunity. Now billed as the largest Fintech industry meeting in the world, Lendit organizers started this event four years ago with about 200 participants. This year’s event attracted more than 5,000 people.

We work on various areas of financial inclusion and are interested in new ways that can help expand access to financial services to hard-to-reach populations and small businesses in developing countries.

We returned with a new appreciation for the magnitude of change that is coming, and how quickly it could occur – and already is in some instances.  Some innovations will help developing countries leapfrog into this new tech era. This could have a significant – and potentially highly positive - impact on financial inclusion, and fundamentally change the nature of financial infrastructure. 

However, these opportunities come with potential risks, such as those related to (un)fair lending practices related to unmonitored use and analysis of big data or increased systemic vulnerabilities due to threats to cybersecurity. 
 

Growth and financial inclusion: Where is Tanzania today?

Bella Bird's picture
© Venance Nestory/World Bank


Two Tanzanian entrepreneurs: Hadiya and Mzuzi. Hadiya has built a successful micro-business taking advantage of mobile money services, including money transfers and savings products that are low cost and safe, as well as short term micro-loans. But Mzuzi, the owner of a small, 10-person enterprise, is facing a financial crisis despite huge personal drive and inventiveness because of his inability to access credit to expand.

Empowering Women in the World

Kristalina Georgieva's picture

© Binyam Teshome/World Bank

When women do well, everyone benefits. Giving women access to better jobs and financial security are keys to ending poverty. Gender gaps harm the entire economy. We know that when women control the finances, they tend to spend money on the things that matter most – essential food and water, school fees and health care for the family. It’s amazing what small changes can do – a mobile money account opens up the ability to get small loans, buy insurance, and make payments. The World Bank is working to empower women around the world, supporting women entrepreneurs in Pakistan and supporting women and their families with cash cards in Lebanon.


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