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December 2017

Why don’t people migrate more? A lab experiment of sequential decision-making: Guest post by Zach Barnett-Howell

This is the sixteenth in this year’s job market series

Darling you got to let me know // Should I stay or should I go?
One way to escape poverty is to leave it behind. Literally. Moving from a poorer to richer area is so advantageous for individuals that an entire literature on migration has developed to explain why more people don't move.

If you say that you are mine // I’ll be here ‘till the end of time
Bryan, Chowdhury, and Mobarak conducted an experiment in northwestern Bangladesh to induce migration. They offered households a small subsidy to migrate, a round-trip bus ticket worth $8.50. This proved sufficient for people to migrate, and those who migrated earned more and enjoyed higher levels of welfare. So it brought up a new question: why hadn’t those households already decided to migrate?
 
This immobility is problematic because it’s not supposed to happen. Foundational migration theories, like the Harris-Todaro model, were designed to explain movement from poorer to richer areas. These migrations made sense: people were arbitraging wages and other amenities across space, receiving more by being elsewhere. But how can we explain the opposite—people who don’t migrate—when the welfare gains would be tremendous?

If I go, there will be trouble // if I stay it will be double
In my job market paper I explain why people rationally would not make moves that offer higher welfare. I do this by modeling migration as a sequential decision where people try to figure out which location would suit them best.

What is so unique about the growth (or decline) of cities in Eastern Europe and Central Asia?

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
How fast is your city growing? The answer may depend on where you live.

There are the booming megacities such as Tokyo, Mumbai, and Nairobi. Then there are cities that are declining in population, such as Detroit.

In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where we recently conducted a study on urban growth trends, we found unique demographic patterns affecting the urbanization process in the region.

For example, the region has had fertility rates below replacement levels for more than two decades, and most countries in the region have negative net migration rates.

This signifies that the population of most countries in the region is either growing very slowly or declining, and in some countries urban population has started to decline.

What does this mean for cities?

With a smaller labor force at hand, cities in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are increasingly competing against one another to attract human capital.

Resulting from this competition, we find that most of the cities in the region are shrinking while population growth is increasingly concentrated in a few cities. Per our estimates, 61% of the region’s cities shrank between 2000 and 2010, losing on average 11% of their population.

This scale of city population decline is unprecedented.
 
 

C4D2-Training: Working with regional statistics training centers to improve household surveys in Africa

Shelton Kanyanda's picture

Household surveys are an important source of development data, but in low- and middle-income countries the capacity to conduct and analyze them varies widely. To help address this issue, the World Bank’s Rome-based hub for innovation in household surveys and agricultural statistics—the Center for Development Data (C4D2)—and several Italian partners launched the C4D2 Training Program to increase the capacity of lecturers from statistical training centers in Africa to design and implement sound and modern household surveys.

Participants listening to a presentation by the Bank of Italy on Measuring Wealth

The Program’s first initiative, a week-long training course on “Designing Household Surveys to Measure Poverty” was held from November 27 to December 1 in Perugia, Italy, at facilities provided by the Bank of Italy. Participants included lecturers from the Eastern African Statistics Training Center, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Statistique et d'Economie Appliquée, and experts from the African Center for Statistics of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Instructors included staff from the World Bank, the Bank of Italy, the Italian National Institute of Statistics, and the Italian Institute of Health. The Italian Agency for Cooperation and Development is providing funding for this initiative.

David Lawrence – 10 Candid Career Questions with Infrastructure & PPP Professionals

David Lawrence's picture



Editor's Note: 
Welcome to the “10 Candid Career Questions” series, introducing you to the infrastructure and PPP professionals who do the deals, analyze the data, and strategize on the next big thing. Each of them followed a different path into infra and/or PPP practice, and this series offers an inside look at their backgrounds, motivations, and choices. Each blogger receives the same 15 questions and answers 10 or more that tell their career story candidly and without jargon. We believe you’ll be as surprised and inspired as we were.  For examples of other entries on the IPG blog, click here.

An opportunity to reinvent our food system and unlock human capital too

Robert Jones's picture
A woman sorts seaweed after harvesting it in Rote, Indonesia. © Robert Jones
A woman sorts seaweed after harvesting it in Rote, Indonesia. © Robert Jones

What if we had the chance to reinvent the world’s food system and make local, more sustainable, nourishing and diverse food the new norm rather than the exception? 
 
It might seem far-fetched, but with 9 billion people expected on our planet by 2050, and one out of three children in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa stunted from poor nutrition, it's a necessity. Today, one in ten fellow citizens suffer from hunger and global food waste is at an all-time high.  

#10 from 2017: Campaign Art: Food Waste

Darejani Markozashvili's picture
Our Top Ten blog posts by readership in 2017. This post was originally published on January 18, 2017.  

People, Spaces, Deliberation bloggers present exceptional campaign art from all over the world. These examples are meant to inspire.
 
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annually around the world 1.3 billion tons of food is lost or wasted. In the world, where about one in nine people do not have enough food (that’s some 795 million people), food waste presents an enormous opportunity for tackling food insecurity.
 
In order to bring more attention to the issue of food loss and waste and promote food loss reduction, FAO is leading the Save Food global initiative, partnering with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and others in the private sector and civil society.
 
#NotWasting

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

Chart: 100 Million People Pushed into Poverty by Health Costs in 2010

Tariq Khokhar's picture



Universal health coverage (UHC) means that all people can obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship. A new report produced by the World Bank and the World Health Organization, finds that health expenditures are pushing about 100 million people per year into “extreme poverty,” those who live on $1.90 or less a day; and about 180 million per year into poverty using a $3.10 per day threshold.

You can access the report, data, interactive visualizations, and background papers at: http://data.worldbank.org/universal-health-coverage/

How young people are rethinking the future of work

Esteve Sala's picture
(Photo: Michael Haws / World Bank)


When we talk about the future of work, it is important to include perspectives, ideas and solutions from young people as they are the driving force that can shape the future.  As we saw at the recent Youth Summit 2017, the younger, digitally-savvy generations —whether they are called Millennials, Gen Y, or Gen Z— shared solutions that helped tackle global challenges.  The two-day event welcomed young people to discuss how to leverage technology and innovation for development impact.  In this post, we interviewed —under a job-creation perspective—finalists of the summit's global competition.


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