While the share of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa decreased from 56 percent in 1990 to 43 percent in 2012, the region’s rapid population growth outpaced the decrease in poverty, resulting in higher number of poor people than before. More specifically, Africa’s urban population is expected to triple in size in the next half century, which is putting pressure on scarce resources in cities, exacerbated by capacity, budget and governance bottlenecks. The densely-populated areas with low levels of water and sanitation services pose a serious threat to public health – cholera epidemics have broken out in urban areas in several African countries in recent years.
Photo: Deutsche Welle | Flickr Creative Commons
As in many regions, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are underinvesting in infrastructure—spending in the sector is only about half of the $300 billion needed annually to encourage growth and reduce poverty. Addressing this issue involves the successful interaction between public officials and leading infrastructure actors, particularly in the private sector. Stimulating such public-private dialogue is a priority for the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) Group, a technical partner of the Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF). Along with other partners, our recently established PPP unit supports governments, international financial institutions, and the private sector to develop infrastructure projects.
It was therefore a privilege for me to moderate a panel on country infrastructure programs in Latin America at the GIF’s annual Advisory Council meeting in April 2017. We covered three countries—Colombia, Argentina and Peru—at different stages of PPP market development. The findings were encouraging and illustrate a path forward for other countries in the region:
I recently received an email from a researcher who was interested in trying to re-interview participants in one of my experiments to test several theories about whether that intervention had impacts on political participation and other political outcomes. I get these requests infrequently, but this is by no means the first. Another example in the last year was someone who had done in-depth qualitative interviews on participants in a different experiment of mine, and then wanted to be able to link their responses on my surveys to their responses on his. I imagine I am not alone in getting such requests, and I don’t think there is a one-size-fits-all response to when this can be possible, so thought I would set out some thoughts about the issues here, and see if others can also share their thoughts/experiences.
Confidentiality and Informed Consent: typically when participants are invited to respond to a survey or participate in a study they are told i) that the purpose of the survey is X ,and will perhaps involve a baseline survey and several follow-ups; and ii) all responses they provide will be kept confidential and used for research purposes only. These factors make it hard to then hand over identifying information about respondents to another researcher.
However, I think this can be addressed via the following system:
Over the past decades, education investments in the developing world have led to unprecedented enrollment rates. Yet, even with these historic investments, children sit in classrooms every day without learning. More than a schooling crisis, we face a learning crisis. Despite progress in countries as diverse as Vietnam, Colombia and Peru, millions of children leave school without knowing how to read a paragraph or solve a simple two-digit subtraction.
Imagine this: You open your mail and it says that you are owed $1,200 from overpaid taxes! After recovering from your elation, you read on. The letter requests you to choose if you would like to be paid over the next year in increments of $100 every month or $300 every three months?